Horizontal Directional Drilling is the science of drilling a wellbore at a predetermined well trajectory, angle and horizontal direction so as to intersect a subsurface target. Although wellbores are usually drilled in a vertical direction, at times it is advantageous to drill them at an angle from the vertical direction. The well is drilled at […]
Forming gas is a mixture of hydrogen (mole fraction varies) and nitrogen. It is sometimes called a “dissociated ammonia atmosphere” due to the reaction which generates it: 2 NH3 → 3 H2 + N2 It can also be manufactured by thermal cracking of ammonia, in an ammonia cracker or forming gas generator. Forming gas is used as an atmosphere for processes that need the properties of […]
Exploration and production industry (Upstream Oil and Gas) Upstream Oil and Gas is a sector of the oil and gas industry which deals with exploring hydrocarbon reserves, extracting and transporting them for further processing. In simple terms Upstream Oil and Gas is also referred to Exploration and Production (E&P) sector. The Exploration of reserves can […]
Råolja är en naturligt förekommande petroleumprodukt som finns under jordytan. Råolja kan raffineras för att producera användbara produkter som bensin, diesel och olika former av petrokemikalier. Det är en icke-förnybar resurs, även känd som ett fossilt bränsle, vilket innebär att den inte kan ersättas naturligt i den takt vi förbrukar [...].
Brent Crude is a major trading classification of sweet light crude oil that serves as a major benchmark price for purchases of oil worldwide. This grade is described as light because of its relatively low density, and sweet because of its low sulfur content. Brent Crude is extracted from the North Sea and comprises Brent Blend, Forties Blend, Osebergand Ekofisk crudes (also known as the BFOE Quotation). The Brent […]
Oil and natural gas are naturally occurring chemicals that are made up of just two elements — carbon and hydrogen. The class of chemicals based on carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. The simplest hydrocarbon, methane, is made up of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. Other hydrocarbons like octane and octadecane have more […]
Petroleum (also known as crude oil or simply oil) is a fossil fuel that was formed from the remains of ancient marine organisms. Millions of years ago, algae and plants lived in shallow seas. After dying and sinking to the seafloor, the organic material mixed with other sediments and was buried. Over millions of years […]