Pipelines typically operate at pressures ranging from 70 to 100 bar. As a general rule, the initial compressor stations for pipelines require two-stage compression for boosting pressure from 40 to 140 bar, while intermediate compressor stations require single-stage compression from 100 to 140 bar. Some pipelines operate at high pressures. High-pressure pipelines are defined as overland gas pipelines operating at pressure higher than 100 bar and in the range of 100 to 200 bar.
A High-Pressure Pipeline is a type of pipeline that is used to transport crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas across countries or within states at very high pressure. In order to keep the liquids and gases flowing in the pipeline, the pressure of the pipeline has be to increased and constantly kept in the range of 200 to 1500 psi depending on the viscosity of the petroleum product being transported. All high-pressure pipelines are made of up of carbon steel or stainless steel and are large diameter pipelines (20 inches above).
Pipelines are one of the safest and most effective ways of transporting crude oil, natural gas and petroleum products between border sharing nations and states. The industry jargon for pipelines varies with respect to the oil and gas sectors. All pipelines that are used in the oil and gas sector are high pressure pipelines, except those which carry natural gas for cooking and heating purposes in the residential space which have a pressure of up to 21 mbar.
In the upstream sector of oil and gas industry, small diameter pipelines which carry crude oil and natural gas from the wellhead to the processing plants are called gathering systems. Once crude oil and natural gas are processed and impurities are removed, they are sent to trade in the markets of the countries or states which need them via trunk pipelines (intrastate as well as interstate pipelines). The crude oil is transported to the respective countries or the state refineries for further processing via large diameter trunk pipelines. Once the Petroleum products are produced, they are further transported to various demand centers within the country either by intrastate pipelines, rail or road network. To carry the products further to the customers, small diameter pipelines called spur lines are connected to the trunk lines which carry the products further to the densely populated demographic regions.
The high-pressure pipelines are large diameter carbon steel pipelines with diameters ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches or more and cover more than 2000 km distances.