A washer is a type of thin disk with a hole, usually in the center. A washer is used to support the load of a threaded fastener. It can also be used as a spacer, spring, wear pad, pre-load indicating device, and also locking device. In taps or valves , it is used to form the seal that shuts off the flow of liquid or gas. There is a type of washer called the reducing washer which is used to connect pipes of different sizes. Washers are available in various sizes and materials and widely used in pipe applications besides the other applications.

Materials used:
Washers are usually made of:
  • Rubber
  • Plastic
  • Steel
  • Stainless steel
  • Carbon steel
  • Cast iron
  • Copper
  • Alloy
  • Brass
  • Bronze etc.

Buying tips

Factors that are to be considered for washers are as follows:

  • Material
  • Size
  • Thickness
  • Dimensions
    • Outside Diameter
    • Inside Diameter

How to measure washer?
Following measurements are to be taken for washers:

  • Outside diameter
  • Inside diameter
  • Thickness

As a rule, washers usually have outer diameter (OD) about twice their inside diameter (ID).

UWashersses of washers:
Some uses of washers are as follows:

  • Used as a seal to stop the flow of liquid or gas in pipe.
  • Used as inlet devices in pipes.
  • Connect pipes of various sizes.
  • Can be used as a spring.
  • Used as a locking device.
  • Prevents galvanic corrosion, especially by insulating steel screws from aluminum surfaces etc.

Types of washers:

Lock Washers

Lock Washers:

These washers, also known as split washer, provide better load distribution and greater tension which in turn prevent against loosening due to vibration.

Flat Washers

Flat Washers:

Used for a truly non-corrosive assembly.

Spring Washers

Spring Washers:

Adjustable washers in an irregular shape so that when the washer is loaded it deflects and acts like a spring, which in turn provide a pre-load between two surfaces.


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